Elevator as a vertical transportation machine,with the development of computer and power electronics technology, elevator has become an inevitable part of modern life. Elevator in high-rise office buildings and residential buildings, escalator and move walking in shopping malls, airports, railway stations, subway stations,; observation elevator in hotels ,all bring us great convenience.
With the rapid development of China’s real estate industry, China’s elevator technology has been continuously strengthened.
1st Classification of common elevators
- Classification by use of elevators
（a）Passenger elevator：Mainly used for transporting passengers up and down the building, generally set up a better car decoration and perfect safety facilities.
（b）Freight elevator：Mainly to transport of goods, equipment, etc.
（c）Emergency elevator：When building break out of fire and other elevators cout of commission, the emergency elevator can be used for fire fighters, usually used for transport equipment, staff, cargo, etc..
（d）Medical elevator：Used for hospital to transport medical bed, stretcher, medical vehicle,the car has a long narrow characteristics.
（e）Dumbwaiter：For the library, bookstore, office buildings, hotels to delivery stuffs，such as books, documents, food and others.Dumbwaiter is generally small, does not allow manned.
（f）Observation elevator：Usually have transparent wall.
（g）Escalator：Elevator for transporting passengers on an inclined plane.
（h）Others：car lift,ship lift and so on.
- Classification by the transport speed of elevators
（a）low-speed elevator：speed≤1.0 m/s
（b）general-speed elevator：speed≥1.0 m/s
（c）high-speed elevator：speed≥2.0 m/s
（d）super high-speed elevator：speed≥3.5 m/s
- Classification by Drive and traction motor
（a）AC Elevator：Elevator driven by AC induction motor.
（b）DC elevator：Elevator driven by DC induction motor.
（c）Hydraulic elevator：Use of hydraulic pump, by the plunger or plunger and wire rope to drive .
（d）Rack and pinion elevator：The guide rail is processed into a rack, and the car is provided with a gear which is combined with the gear, and the motor drives the gear to rotate so that the lift of the car is lifted.Commonly used in wharf shore crane, construction site.
（e）Linear-motor-driven elevator：most advanced driving mode for elevator at present.
2st Elevator basic structure
According to their different functions, the elevator can be divided into eight parts:the Traction system,the guiding system,the Door system,the Car system,the Weight balance system,the Electric power system,Electric control system and the Security system.
- The traction system is composed with traction machine，traction rope，guide pulley and suspension sheave.
- The guiding system is composed of guide rail, guide shoe and rail frame.It controls the moving direction of car and the counterweight , so that the car and the counterweight can only move along the guide rail.
- Door system is composed of car door,landing door, door opening machine, linkage mechanism, door lock and so on.
- The car is to transport passengers or cargo.It is made up of car frame and car body.The car frame is the load-bearing frame of the car body, which is composed of a beam, a column, a bottom beam and an inclined rod.The car body is composed of car bottom, car wall, car top and lighting, car decorative part and control panel.
- The weight balance system is composed of counterweight and weight compensation devices.
- Electric power system is composed of traction machine and power supply system, speed feedback device and speed adjusting device etc.
- The electric control system is composed of control device, position display device, control panel, leveling device and level selection device.It is used to manipulate and control the operation of the elevator.
- Security system Includes various types of mechanical and electrical protection , can be used to ensure the safety of the elevator.